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HPMR

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major histocompatibility complex, class I, G OKDB#: 2280
 Symbols: HLA-G Species: human
 Synonyms: MHC-G, HLA-6.0, HLA60| T-CELL A LOCUS, TCA| Qa, MURINE, HOMOLOG OF|  Locus: 6p21.3 in Homo sapiens


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General Comment This gene was found through a mouse ovarian follicle microarray.

NCBI Summary: HLA-G belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. HLA-G is expressed on fetal derived placental cells. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domain, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region, and exon 6 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq]
General function Ligand
Comment
Cellular localization Secreted
Comment
Ovarian function Early embryo development
Comment HLA-G Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Preimplantation Embryos. Verloes A et al. Human leukocyte Ag-G, a tolerogenic molecule that acts on cells of both innate and adaptive immunity, plays an important role in tumor progression, transplantation, placentation, as well as the protection of the allogeneic fetus from the maternal immune system. We investigated HLA-G mRNA and protein expression in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocysts. hESC self-renew indefinitely in culture while maintaining pluripotency, providing an unlimited source of cells for therapy. HLA-G mRNA was present in early and late passage hESC, as assessed by real time RT-PCR. Protein expression was demonstrated by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and ELISA on an hESC extract. Binding of HLA-G with its ILT2 receptor demonstrated the functional active status. To verify this finding in a physiologically relevant setting, HLA-G protein expression was investigated during preimplantation development. We demonstrated HLA-G protein expression in oocytes, cleavage stage embryos, and blastocysts, where we find it in trophectoderms but also in ICM cells. During blastocyst development, a downregulation of HLA-G in the ICM cells was present. This data might be important for cell therapy and transplantation because undifferentiated hESC can contaminate the transplant of differentiated stem cells and develop into malignant cancer cells. Differential expression of alternatively spliced transcripts of HLA-G in human preimplantation embryos and inner cell masses. Yao YQ et al. It has been reported that preimplantation human embryos secrete HLA-G, and the levels may be predictive of their ability to implant. However, it is not known which of the membrane-bound (HLA-G 1-4) and soluble (HLA-G 5-6) alternatively spliced forms are present, nor the developmental stage at which they appear. Therefore, we have investigated HLA-G mRNA isoform expression on single embryos at the two-, four-, six-, and eight-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages. The percentage of embryos expressing each HLA-G isoform mRNA increased with developmental stage, but contrary to expectation, HLA-G5 mRNA was not detected in single two- to eight-cell embryos and was only expressed by 20% of morulae and blastocysts. Similarly, soluble HLA-G6 mRNA was not detected until the blastocyst stage and then in only one-third of embryos. In contrast, labeling with MEM G/9 Ab (specific for HLA-G1 and -G5) was observed in 15 of 20 two- to eight-cell embryos and 5 of 5 blastocysts. This disparity between mRNA and protein may be due to HLA-G protein remaining from maternal oocyte stores produced before embryonic genome activation and brings into question the measurement of soluble HLA-G for clinical evaluation of embryo quality. Although HLA-G is expressed in the preimplantation embryo, later it is primarily expressed in the invasive trophoblast of the placenta rather than the fetus. Therefore, we have investigated whether down-regulation of HLA-G first occurs in the inner cell mass (precursor fetal cells) of the blastocyst and, in support of this concept, have shown the absence HLA-G1 and -G5 protein and mRNA.
Expression regulated by
Comment
Ovarian localization Oocyte, Follicular Fluid
Comment Soluble HLA-G molecules in follicular fluid: A tool for oocyte selection in IVF? Rizzo R et al. Currently, different approaches are used to select oocytes for in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures, but they do not assure a significant association with the pregnancy outcome. Since several studies have proposed the expression of HLA-G antigens in early embryos to be a possible marker of elevated implantation rate, we have investigated the presence of soluble HLA-G molecules in 50 follicular fluids (FFs). The results have shown soluble HLA-G antigens (sHLA-G) in 19/50 (38%) FFs. Furthermore, we have related the presence of sHLA-G molecules in FFs to detection of the soluble antigens in culture supernatants of the corresponding fertilized oocyte, evidencing a significant relationship (p=1.3x10(-6); Fisher exact p-test). Specific ELISA and Western blot approaches identified both HLA-G5 and soluble HLA-G1 molecules in FFs while immunocytochemical analysis indicated polymorphonuclear-like and granulosa cells as responsible for production of sHLA-G1 and HLA-G5 molecules. In contrast, only sHLA-G1 antigens were detected in culture supernatants of fertilized oocytes. Overall, these results suggest a role for sHLA-G molecules in the ovulatory process and propose the FFs analysis for sHLA-G molecule presence as a useful tool for oocyte selection in IVF.
Follicle stages
Comment
Phenotypes
Mutations 0 mutations
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created: Nov. 10, 2003, 4:27 p.m. by: xin   email:
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last update: Jan. 26, 2011, 2:20 p.m. by: hsueh    email:



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