This gene encodes a transcription factor that activates target genes for the unfolded protein response (UPR) during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Although it is a transcription factor, this protein is unusual in that it is synthesized as a transmembrane protein that is embedded in the ER. It functions as an ER stress sensor/transducer, and following ER stress-induced proteolysis, it functions as a nuclear transcription factor via a cis-acting ER stress response element (ERSE) that is present in the promoters of genes encoding ER chaperones. This protein has been identified as a survival factor for quiescent but not proliferative squamous carcinoma cells. There have been conflicting reports about the association of polymorphisms in this gene with diabetes in different populations, but another polymorphism has been associated with increased plasma cholesterol levels. This gene is also thought to be a potential therapeutic target for cystic fibrosis. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Nucleic acid binding, DNA binding, Transcription factor
Expression regulated by
Cross-Talk Between FSH and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: A Mutually Suppressive Relationship. Babayev E et al. (2015) Suboptimal cellular conditions result in the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and trigger ER stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on ER stress in granulosa cells (GCs) obtained from 3-week-old female C57BL6 mice 24 or 48 hours after intraperitoneal injection of 5 IU pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG), and in primary mouse GCs in culture treated with FSH (10-100 mIU/mL) for 24 or 48 hours. Moreover, mouse GCs in culture were treated with tunicamycin (Tm) or thapsigargin (Tp), which induce ER stress by inhibiting N-glycosylation of ER proteins and ER calcium adenosine triphosphatase, respectively, and their response to FSH was evaluated. We found that FSH attenuated ER stress in mouse GCs in vivo and in vitro; messenger RNA levels of ER stress-associated genes Xbp1s, Atf6, Chop, and Casp12 were decreased upon exposure to FSH/PMSG. Activating transcription factor 4 protein levels also demonstrated consistent decrease following FSH stimulation. Both Tm and Tp treatments inhibited FSH response, ER stress-induced cells did not show any change in estradiol levels in response to FSH, whereas in untreated GCs, estradiol production increased 3-fold after incubation with FSH for 60 hours. Furthermore, ER stress-induced cells failed to demonstrate aromatase (Cyp19a1) expression upon exposure to FSH. Importantly, under high-ER stress conditions FSH stimulation was unable to downregulate the expression of ER stress-associated genes. Our findings suggest that FSH decreases ER stress in GCs under physiologic conditions. However, under conditions that cause a significant increase in ER stress, FSH response is attenuated.//////////////////
Zheng P, et al compared the temporal expression patterns of five housekeeping mRNAs and three transcription factor mRNAs between mouse and rhesus monkey.