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since 01/2001:

keratin 8 OKDB#: 4307
 Symbols: KRT8 Species: human
 Synonyms: K8, KO, CK8, CK-8, CYK8, K2C8, CARD2  Locus: 12q13.13 in Homo sapiens

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DNA Microarrays
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General Comment

NCBI Summary: This gene is a member of the type II keratin family clustered on the long arm of chromosome 12. Type I and type II keratins heteropolymerize to form intermediate-sized filaments in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. The product of this gene typically dimerizes with keratin 18 to form an intermediate filament in simple single-layered epithelial cells. This protein plays a role in maintaining cellular structural integrity and also functions in signal transduction and cellular differentiation. Mutations in this gene cause cryptogenic cirrhosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
General function Cytoskeleton
Cellular localization Cytoskeleton
Ovarian function Follicle atresia, Luteinization
Comment Changes in keratin 8/18 expression in human granulosa cell lineage are associated to cell death/survival events: potential implications for the maintenance of the ovarian reserve. Gaytan F et al. (2018) Is keratin 8/18 (K8/K18) expression linked to cell death/survival events in the human granulosa cell lineage? A close association exists between changes in K8/K18 expression and cell death/survival events along the human granulosa cell lineage lifespan. In addition to their structural and mechanical functions, K8/K18 play essential roles regulating cell death, survival and differentiation in several non-gonadal epithelial tissues. Transfection of the granulosa-like tumor KGN cells with siRNA to interfere KRT8 and KRT18 expression increases FAS-mediated apoptosis, while an inverse association between K8/K18 expression and cell death has been found in the bovine antral follicles and corpus luteum. Yet, only fragmentary and inconclusive information exists regarding K8/K18 expression in the human ovary. Expression of K8/K18 was assessed by immunohistochemistry at different stages of the granulosa cell lineage, from flattened granulosa cells in primordial follicles to fully luteinized granulosa-lutein cells in the corpus luteum (including corpus luteum of pregnancy). Immunohistochemical detection of K8/K18 was conducted in 40 archival ovarian samples from women aged 17-39 years. K8/K18 expression was analyzed at the different stages of follicle development and corpus luteum lifespan. The proportions of primordial follicles showing all K8/K18-positive, all K8/K18 negative, or a mixture of K8/K18 negative and positive granulosa cells were quantified in 18 ovaries, divided into three age groups: ≤ 25 years (N = 6), 26-30 (N = 6) and 31-36 (N = 6) years. A total number of 1793 primordial, 750 transitional and 140 primary follicles were scored. A close association was found between changes in K8/K18 expression and cell death/cell survival events in the human granulosa cell lineage. Large secondary and early antral follicles (most of them undergoing atresia) and regressing corpora lutea displayed low/absent K8/K18 expression. Conversely, early growing and some large antral follicles, functional menstrual corpora lutea, as well as life-extended corpus luteum of pregnancy, in which cell death was scarce, showed high K8/K18 expression. Three sub-populations of primordial follicles were observed with respect to the presence of K8/K18 in their flattened granulosa cells, ranging from primordial follicles showing only positive granulosa cells P0(+)], to others with a mixture of positive and negative cells [P0(+/-)] or follicles with only negative cells [P0(-)]. Significant age-related changes were found in the proportions of the different primordial follicle types. In relation to age, a positive correlation was found for P0(+) primordial follicles (R2= 0.7883, N = 18; P < 0.001), while negative correlations were found for P0(+/-) (R2= 0.6853, N = 18; P < 0.001) and P0(-) (R2= 0.6725, N = 18; P < 0.001) follicles. Furthermore, an age-related shift towards greater keratin expression was found in P0(+/-) follicles (χ2 = 19.07, P < 0.05). N/A. This is a descriptive study. Hence, a cause-and-effect relationship between K8/K18 expression and cell death/survival cannot be directly established. This study describes, for the first time, the existence of sub-populations of primordial follicles on the basis of K8/K18 expression in granulosa cells, and that their proportions change with age. While a progressive increase in K8/K18 expression cannot be ruled out, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that primordial follicles expressing low levels of K8/K18 are preferentially ablated by follicle attrition, while primordial follicles showing high K8/K18 levels are those predominantly recruited into the growing pool. This suggests that K8/K18 expression could constitute a novel factor regulating primordial follicle death/survival, and raises the possibility that alterations of K8/K18 expression could be involved in the accelerated depletion of the ovarian reserve leading to premature ovarian insufficiency. This work was supported by Grants BFU2011-025021 and BFU2014-57581-P (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Spain; co-funded with EU funds from FEDER Program); project PIE14-00005 (Flexi-Met, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ministerio de Sanidad, Spain); Projects P08-CVI-03788 and P12-FQM-01943 (Junta de Andalucía, Spain); and EU research contract DEER FP7-ENV-2007-1. CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición is an initiative of Instituto de Salud Carlos III. The authors have nothing to disclose in relation to the contents of this study.////////////////// Estrous cycle-dependent changes of Fas expression in the bovine corpus luteum: influence of keratin 8/18 intermediate filaments and cytokines. [Duncan A et al. ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fas expression and Fas-induced apoptosis are mechanisms attributed to the selective destruction of cells of the corpus luteum (CL) during luteal regression. In certain cell-types, sensitivity to these death-inducing mechanisms is due to the loss or cleavage of keratin-containing intermediate filaments. Specifically, keratin 8/18 (K8/K18) filaments are hypothesized to influence cell death in part by regulating Fas expression at the cell surface. METHODS: Here, Fas expression on bovine luteal cells was quantified by flow cytometry during the early (Day 5, postovulation) and late stages (Days 16--18, postovulation) of CL function, and the relationship between Fas expression, K8/K18 filament expression and cytokine-induced cell death in vitro was evaluated. RESULTS: Both total and cell surface expression of Fas on luteal cells was greater for early versus late stage bovine CL (89% vs. 44% of cells for total Fas; 65% vs.18% of cells for cell surface Fas; respectively, P<0.05, n=6-9 CL/stage). A similar increase in the steady-state concentration of mRNA for Fas, as detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, however, was not observed. Transient disruption of K8/K18 filaments in the luteal cells with acrylamide (5 mM), however, had no effect on the surface expression of Fas (P>0.05, n=4 CL/stage), despite evidence these conditions increased Fas expression on HepG2 cells (P<0.05, n= 3 expts). Exposure of the luteal cells to cytokines induced cell death (P<0.05) as expected, but there was no effect of K8/K18 filament disruption by acrylamide (P>0.05) or stage of CL (P>0.05, n= 4 CL/stage) on this outcome. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we rejected our null hypothesis that the cell surface expression of Fas does not differ between luteal cells of early and late stage CL. The results also did not support the idea that K8/K18 filaments influence the expression of Fas on the surface of bovine luteal cells. Potential downstream effects of these filaments on death signaling, however, remain a possibility. Importantly, the elevated expression of Fas observed on cells of early stage bovine CL compared to late stage bovine CL raises a provocative question concerning the physiological role(s) of Fas in the corpus luteum, particularly during early luteal development.
Expression regulated by
Ovarian localization Granulosa, Luteal cells, Surface epithelium
Comment Marker profile of different phases in the transition of normal human ovarian epithelium to ovarian carcinomas. van Niekerk CC et al. To investigate whether early changes in the transformation of normal ovarian epithelial cells into tumor cells can be detected with monoclonal antibodies, a comparative immunohistochemical study was performed on normal human ovarian mesothelial cells, cystomas, cystadenomas, ovarian carcinomas, as well as granulosa cell tumor. Using monoclonal antibodies against different keratin subtypes, it was shown that mesothelial cells, ovarian cysts, cystadenomas, and carcinomas all reacted positively with broad-spectrum anti-keratin monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), as well as with MAbs to keratins 7, 8, 18, and 19. Keratins 4 and 13 were not found in mesothelial cells, but positive groups of cells were identified in several cystomas, adenomas, and carcinomas. While mesothelial cells did not react with the pan-epithelial marker BW495/36, invaginating metaplastic mesothelial cells, inclusion cysts, cystomas, adenomas, and carcinomas showed an increasing reactivity with BW495/36, with an increasing degree of malignancy. The reactivity of MAbs against ovarian carcinoma-associated antigens (OV-TL 3, OC 125, MOv 18, and OV-TL 10) was limited to weak staining reaction in some mesothelial cells but were found to be positive on more than 50% of the ovarian cystadenomas and more than 90% of the ovarian carcinomas. Thecal and granulosa cells of primordial, primary, and secondary follicles all reacted positively with antibodies to the broad-spectrum keratins OV-TL 12/5 and RCK 102, and to keratins 8 and 18, but not with keratins 4, 7, 13, and 19. These keratins decreased or disappeared in granulosa cells of mature follicles (Graafian follicles), whereas granulosa cell tumors did not react with anti-keratin antibodies. The reactivity of BW 495/36 was negative or limited to traces in some granulosa cells. Ovarian carcinoma-associated antigens were not expressed in granulosa cells or granulosa cell tumors. The data indicate that mesothelial cells undergoing metaplastic changes finally resulting in ovarian cystadenomas (and carcinomas) initiate the synthesis of a 200-kd glycoprotein recognized by MAb (BW 495/36), the production of ovarian carcinoma associated antigens, in addition to focal production of keratin 4 and/or 13, as seen in several samples. The granulosa cell tumors decrease or switch off their keratin production and remain negative for the 200-kd glycoprotein and the ovarian carcinoma-associated antigens. Expression and distribution of cytokeratin 8/18 intermediate filaments in bovine antral follicles and corpus luteum: an intrinsic mechanism of resistance to apoptosis? Townson DH et al. Apoptosis is a mechanism of cell elimination during follicular atresia and luteal regression. Recent evidence suggests sensitivity to apoptosis in some cell types is partly dependent upon cytokeratin-containing intermediate filaments. Specifically, cytokeratin 8/18 (CK8/18) filaments are thought to impart resistance to apoptosis. Here, cytokeratin filament expression within bovine ovarian follicles and corpora lutea (CL) was characterized and the potential relationship between cell-specific CK8/18 expression and apoptosis explored. Immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis confirmed CK8 associates with CK18 to form CK8/18 heterodimeric filaments within bovine ovarian cells. Immunostaining revealed populations of CK18-positive (CK18+) cells in healthy growing follicles that increased in postovulatory follicles. Atretic follicles at all stages of atresia also contained some CK18+ cells. However, no CK18+ cells were detected in primordial or primary follicles. In CL, developing CL contained a higher proportion of CK18+ cells (approximately 35%, range 30-70%) than mature CL (approximately 16%) and regressing CL (approximately 5%; P<0.05, n = 3-5 CL/stage), suggesting CK8/18 filament expression diminishes over time, as luteal cells become more susceptible to apoptosis. Dual-fluorescence labeling for CK18 and a cell death marker (TUNEL labeling) confirmed this view, demonstrating less death of CK18+ than CK18- luteal cells throughout the estrous cycle (P<0.05). The results indicate differential expression of CK8/18 filaments occurs in cells of bovine ovarian follicles and CL throughout the estrous cycle. The prevalence and cell-specific pattern of cytokeratin expression in these structures is consistent with the concept these filaments might impart resistance to apoptosis in ovarian cells as is seen in other cell types.
Follicle stages Secondary, Antral, Corpus luteum
Comment Characterization and Significance of Adhesion and Junction-Related Proteins in Mouse Ovarian Follicles. Mora JM et al. In the ovary, initiation of follicle growth is marked by cuboidalization of flattened granulosa cells (GCs). The regulation and cell biology of this shape change remains poorly understood. We propose that characterization of intercellular junctions and associated proteins is key to identifying as yet unknown regulators of this important transition. As GCs are conventionally described as epithelial, this study used mouse ovaries and isolated follicles to investigate epithelial junctional complexes (tight junctions [TJ], adherens junctions [AJ] and desmosomes) and associated molecules, as well as classic epithelial markers by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. These junctions were further characterized using ultrastructural, calcium-depletion and biotin tracer studies. Junctions observed by transmission electron microscopy between GCs and between GCs and the oocyte were identified as AJs by expression of N-cadherin and nectin 2, and by lack of TJ and desmosome-associated proteins. Follicles were also permeable to biotin confirming a lack of functional TJs. Surprisingly, GCs lacked all epithelial markers analysed, including E-cadherin, cytokeratin 8, and zonula occludens (ZO)-1alpha+. Furthermore, vimentin was expressed by GCs suggesting a more mesenchymal phenotype. In calcium-free conditions, small follicles maintained oocyte-GC contact confirming the importance of calcium-independent nectin at this stage. However, in primary and multilayered follicles, lack of calcium resulted in loss of contact between GCs and oocyte, showing that nectin alone cannot maintain attachment between these two cell types. Lack of classic markers suggests that GCs are not epithelial. Identification of AJs during GC cuboidalization highlights the importance of AJs in regulating initiation of follicle growth.
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created: June 2, 2010, 6:48 a.m. by: hsueh   email:
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last update: Feb. 6, 2018, 10:04 a.m. by: hsueh    email:

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